Condition Monitoring Group is focused on developing and applying instrumentation to non-destructive (or semi-destructive) testing of materials and structures.

Green condition Monitoring

The primary goal of the Condition Monitoring Research Group (CMRG) is to understand various mechanical processes, using methods drawn from materials, mechanics and physics, to exploit the potential application of various non-destructive or destructive testing of materials and structure for current or future products.

There is emphasis on the development of new technologies, the study of basic mechanical processes, and the use of this knowledge to tackle specific problems in various industrial applications, including the development of new measurement methods using various instrumentations. The laboratory provides unrivalled opportunities for early career and established researchers. A key feature is that the permanent staff provide expertise in fields ranging from materials, mechanics, physics and signal processing to simulation and analysis. Expert advice is always available to researchers pursuing their own goals. Research groups are small, typically four to eight researchers, but highly interactive, and all equipment is communal. All Condition Monitoring (CM) researchers have access to an abundance of skilled help and facilities to help them achieve their own goals and contribute to the continuing success of the Condition Monitoring (CM) group.

This group is driven by solving problems related to various real life industrial applications. The group's research activities cover diverse areas of oil and gas related application of condition monitoring techniques. Our research is also aimed at providing accurate and real-time information on structural health condition and performance. These are generally used to plan and design maintenance activities, increase the safety, and to broaden the knowledge of the structure being monitored. These are also concerned with determining the performance, durability and safety of equipment that is subjected to a range of operating conditions during their real use.

The research at the Condition Monitoring (CM) covers a wide range of fields, including:

  • Condition monitoring of engines, corrosion, vibration, thermal spraying, fracture, crack propagation
  • Sensor based instrumented mechanical testing
  • Micromechanics of materials, thermal spray coatings, thin films, bonded joints, etc.
  • Neutron diffraction residual strain analysis (coatings, rocks)
  • Fracture mechanics (mode-I, II, mixed-mode)
  • Computational fluid dynamics approach for particle monitoring (multi-phase flow)
  • Analytical/numerical modelling

Clients and Partners

  • CorrosionRADAR Ltd
  • AquaMoor Ltd
  • The Stab-in-Pipe Ltd
  • Xi Engineering Consultants Ltd
  • SMS Oilfield Ltd
  • Stork Technical Services Oil and Gas Innovation Centre (OGIC)
  • Centre of Excellence for Sensor and Imaging Systems (CENSIS)
  • Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

Current Projects (may include current PhD projects)

  • Corrosion Correlation in Splash Zone
  • Neutron scattering study of stress-strain behaviour of porous geological materials
  • Combined assessment and novel diagnostic approach for condition monitoring of multi-layer structures

Characterisation of composite bond adhesive strengths for oil and gas processing applications

Practically, a composite has a heterogeneous structure, and failure often originates from micro-cracks and/or in-efficient strength between the mating composite surfaces.

Recent advances in composite materials have let design engineers meet structural integrity and higher strength requirements (e.g. oil and gas corrosive environment applications). Also, the advancement of increased strength poses a problem in that there is no well-established experimental methodology to measure it. Therefore, non-destructive/semi-destructive and simulation based methodology development has been undergoing to potentially provide a suitable method for assessing the quality of composite structures.

Researcher: Anil Prathuru

Recent Projects

  • Rope mooring system
  • Neutron diffraction residual strain measurements of plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells
  • Damping solution for small bore pipework
  • Design and development of new non-threaded drill pipe connector
  • Nano-composite carbide coatings for wear resistant applications
  • Advance anode materials for direct hydrocarbon proton conducting solid oxide fuel cell (PC-SOFC) in auxiliary power unit
  • Atomistic simulations of thermal spray coating formation and processes
  • Mixed flow particle measurement and monitoring

Analysis of sand monitoring in petroleum fluid using acoustic emission

Presence of sand in the production is one of the challenges faced in the oil and gas industry.

One of the subsequent problems caused by sand production is erosion. Sand erosion prediction is a key aspect of effective sand management. This project provides a potential in sand erosion prediction by appropriate acoustic emission (AE) based sand monitoring technique(s).

Researcher: Amin Hedayetullah

Maintenance optimisation of offshore wind turbines

Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) maintenance costs in between 20 – 35% of the lifetime power generation cost.

Many techniques and tools that are being developed to curtail this cost are challenged by the stochastic climatic conditions of offshore location and the wind energy market. A generic and OWT centric software packages that can smartly adapt to the requirement of any offshore wind farm and optimise its maintenance, logistics and spares-holding while giving due consideration to offshore climate and market conditions will enable OWT operators to centralise their operation and maintenance planning and make significant cost reductions.

This work aims to introduce the idea of a comprehensive tool that can meet the above objectives, and give examples of data and functions required. The package uses wind turbine condition monitoring data to anticipate component failure and proposes a time and maintenance implementation strategies that is developed as per the requirements of HSE and government regulations for working in the offshore locations and at heights. The software database contains key failure analysis data that will be an invaluable asset for future researchers, turbine manufacturers and operators that will optimise OWT power generation cost and better understand OWT working. The work also lists some prevalent tools and techniques developed by industries and researchers for the wind industry.

Researcher: Yashwant Sinha

Structure, strength and defect characterisation of cement based materials

This project provides a potential of using various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques strength and defect characterisation of cement based materials.

Researcher: Ajmol Choudhury


Condition Monitoring Research Publications


1. M. G. Droubi, R. L. Reuben, J. A. Steel, Flow noise identification using acoustic emission (AE) energy decomposition for sand monitoring in flow pipeline, Journal of Applied Acoustics, 131, 2018, 5-15 (doi:

2. M. G. Droubi, J. Mcafee, R. C. Horne, S. Walker, C. Klaassen, A. Crawford, A. K. Prathuru, N. H. Faisal, Mixed-mode fracture characteristics of metal-to-metal adhesively bonded joints: experimental and simulation methods, Structural Integrity Procedia, 5C (2017) pp. 40-47 (doi:

3. N. H. Faisal, R. Ahmed, A. K. Prathuru, S. P. Katikaneni, M. F. A. Goosen, S. Y. Zhang, Neutron diffraction residual strain measurements of molybdenum carbide based solid oxide fuel cell anode layers with metal oxides on Hastelloy X, Experimental Mechanics, 2017, p. 1-19 (DOI:

4. N. H. Faisal, M. G. Droubi, J. A. Steel, Corrosion monitoring of offshore structures using acoustic emission sensor (accepted, September/October 2017 issue, Corrosion Management)

5. O. Ali, R. Ahmed, N. H. Faisal, N. M. Al-Anazi, Y. O. Elakwah, M. F.A. Goosen, Nanoindentation Evaluation of Suspension Thermal Sprayed Nanocomposite WC-Co Coatings, Key Engineering Materials, 735, 2017, p. 225-229 (doi:

6. Mohamad G. Droubi, Nadimul H. Faisal, Fraser Orr, John A. Steel, Mohamed El-Shaib, Acoustic emission method for defect detection and identification in carbon steel welded joints, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 134, 2017, p. 28–37 (doi:

7. N. H. Faisal, Anil K. Prathuru, Saurav Goel, R. Ahmed, M. G. Droubi, B. D. Beake, Y. Q. Fu, Cyclic nanoindentation and nano-impact fatigue mechanisms of functionally graded TiN/TiNi film (in print, special edition on Functional Performance of Shape Memory Alloys, Shape Memory and Superelasticity, Jan 2017, doi: 10.1007/s40830-017-0099-y)

8. O. Ali, R. Ahmed, N. H. Faisal, Nayef M. Alanazi, L.-M. Berger, A. Kaiser, F.-L. Toma, E. K. Polychroniadis, M. Sall, Y. O. Elakwah, M. F. A. Goosen, Influence of Post-treatment on the Microstructural and Tribomechanical Properties of Suspension Thermally Sprayed WC–12 wt%Co Nanocomposite Coatings, Tribology Letters, 2017, 65:33 (doi:

9. Mohamad Ghazi Droubi, Alan Stuart, John Mowat, Craig Noble, Anil Kumar Prathuru, Nadimul Haque Faisal, Acoustic emission method to study fracture (Mode-I, II) and residual strength characteristics in composite-to-metal and metal-to-metal adhesively bonded joints, The Journal of Adhesion, 2017 (doi:

10. J. McAfee, N. H. Faisal, Parametric sensitivity analysis to maximise auxetic effect of polymeric fibre based helical yarn, Composite Structures, 162, 2017, p. 1–12 (doi:

11. Anil K Prathuru, N. H. Faisal, Sha Jihan, John A Steel, James Njuguna, Stress analysis at the interface of metal-to-metal adhesively bonded composite subjected to 4-point bending: Finite element method (The Journal of Adhesion, doi:, 2017

12. M. G. Droubi, R. L. Reuben, Monitoring acoustic emission (AE) energy of abrasive particle impacts in a slurry flow loop using a statistical distribution model, Applied Acoustics, 113, 2016, 202-209 (

13. Droubi, M.G., Reuben, R.L. and White, G., Monitoring acoustic emission (AE) energy in slurry impingement using a new model for particle impact. Journal of Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 62-63, (2015), 415-430.

14. N. H. Faisal, R. Ahmed, S. P. Katikaneni, S. Souentie, M. F. A. Goosen, Development of plasma sprayed molybdenum carbide-based anode layers with various metal oxide precursors for SOFC, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 24(8), 2015, p. 1415-1428 (doi: 10.1007/s11666-015-0315-2)

15. M. Ashraf, R. Ahmed, O. Ali, N. H. Faisal, A. El-Sherik, M. Goosen, Finite element modelling of sliding wear in a composite alloy using a free mesh, ASME Journal of Tribology, 137(3), 2015, 031605 (15 pages), doi:10.1115/1.4029998

16. Saurav Goel, Ben Beake, Chi-Wai Chan, N. H. Faisal, Nicholas Dunne, Twinning anisotropy of tantalum during nanoindentation, Materials Science & Engineering A, 627, 2015, p. 249–261 (doi: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.12.075)

17. R. Ahmed, O. Ali, N. H. Faisal, Nayef M. Al-Anazi, S. Al-Mutairi, F.-L. Toma, L.-M. Berger, A. Potthoff, M. F. A. Goosen, Sliding Wear Investigation of Suspension Sprayed WC-Co Nanocomposite Coatings, Wear, 322–323, 2015, p. 133–150 (doi: 10.1016/j.wear.2014.10.021)

18. Y. Sinha, J. A. Steel, A progressive study into Offshore Wind Farm Maintenance Optimisation using Risk Based Failure Analysis, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42, 2015, 735–742 (doi:

19. Y. Sinha, J. A. Steel, Failure Prognostic schemes and database design of a software tool for efficient management of wind turbine maintenance, Wind Engineering, 39(4), 2015, 453-477

20. R. Ahmed, N. H. Faisal, Nayef M. Al-Anazi, S. Al-Mutairi, F.-L. Toma, L.-M. Berger, A. Potthoff, Y. O. Elakwah, M. F. A. Goosen, Structure Property Relationship of Suspension Thermally Sprayed WC-Co Nanocomposite Coatings, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 2014 (doi: 10.1007/s11666-014-0174-2)

21. N. H. Faisal, R. Ahmed, A. K. Prathuru, S. Spence, M. Hussain, J. A. Steel, An improved Vickers indentation fracture toughness model to assess the quality of thermally sprayed coatings, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 128, 2014, p. 189–204 (doi: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2014.07.015)

22. R. Ahmed, H.L. de Villiers Lovelock, N. H. Faisal, S. Davies, Structure–property relationships in a CoCrMo alloy at micro and nano-scales, Tribology International, 80, 2014, p. 98–114 (doi: 10.1016/j.triboint.2014.06.015)

23. Saurav Goel, N. H. Faisal, Xichun Luo, Jiwang Yan, Anupam Agrawal, Nanoindentation of polysilicon and single crystal silicon: Molecular dynamics simulation and experimental validation, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 47(27), 2014, art no. 275304 (14 pp) (doi:10.1088/0022-3727/47/27/275304)

24. Saurav Goel, Anupam Agrawal, N. H. Faisal, Can a carbon nano-coating resist metallic phase transformation in silicon substrate during nanoimpact? Wear, 315(1–2), 2014, p. 38–41 (doi:

25. A. Ashraf, M. Elameen, R. Ahmed, N. H. Faisal, A. M. El-Sherik, M. F. A. Goosen, Single asperity scratch behavior of cast Stellite 6 alloy, The Springer Proceedings in Physics 154 (March 2014, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-04639-6_9)

26. R. Ahmed, A. Ashraf, M. Elameen, N. H. Faisal, A. M. El-Sherik, Y. O. Elakwah, M. F. A. Goosen, Single asperity nanoscratch behavior of HIPed and cast Stellite 6 alloys, Wear, 312, 2014, p. 70-82 (doi:; Audio Slides related to this work,

27. N. H. Faisal, R. Ahmed, S. Goel, Y. Q. Fu, Influence of test methodology and probe geometry on nanoscale fatigue mechanisms of diamond-like carbon thin film, Surface and Coatings Technology, 242, 2014, p. 42–53 (doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.01.015)

28. S. Goel, N. H. Faisal, V. Ratia, A. Agrawal, A. Stukowski, Atomistic investigation on the structure–property relationship during thermal spray nanoparticle impact, Computational Materials Science, 84, 2014, p. 163-174 (doi: [Most Downloaded Computational Materials Science Articles]

29. Y. Sinha, J. A. Steel, T. O’Shea, Significance of Effect of Lubrication in Mitigating system failures – A Wind Turbine Gearbox Case Study, Wind Engineering, 38 (4), 2014, 441-449.

30. E. H. Alsharaeh, N. H. Faisal, A. Othman, R. Ahmed, Evaluation of nanomechanical properties of STY-MMA copolymer nanocomposite containing graphene sheets, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 52(50), 2013, p. 17871–17881 (doi: 10.1021/ie402390j)

31. R. Ahmed, H. L. de Villiers Lovelock, S. Davies, N. H. Faisal, Influence of re-HIPing on the structure property relationships of cobalt-based alloys, Tribology International, 57, 2013, p. 8-21 (doi:

32. Y. Sinha, J. A. Steel, A. Jesse, Andrawus and Karen Gibson. A SMART Software Package for Maintenance Optimisation of Offshore Wind Turbines, Wind Engineering, 37(6), 2013, 569-577.

33. N. A. Thakkar, J. A. Steel, R. L. Reuben, A laboratory study of rail-wheel interaction monitoring using acoustic emission: Effect of rolling conditions with and without lateral rattling, Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 227(2), 2013 (doi: [winner of the SAGE Best Paper Prize in 2013]

Condition Monitoring Research Staff

Condition Monitoring Research Staff